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qarTveluri memkvidreoba, X

akaki wereTlis saxelmwifo universiteti

quTaisi: gamomcemloba "quTaisis saxelmwifo universiteti", 2006

 

 

Kartvelian Heritage, X

Akaki Tsereteli State University

Kutaisi: Kutaisi State University Press, 2006

 

 

 

giorgi qavTaraZe

sololakis adgilmdebareobisaTvis

 

    [gv. 310] Tbilisis istoriul toponimTa Soris erT-erTi yvelaze ufro bundovani da Znelad asaxsneli saxelwodebaa sololaki.   

    am terminiT aRiniSneba istoriuli gareTubnis Semadgeneli nawili, romelic mdebareobs sololakis qedis Crdilo-dasavleTisa da mTawmindis samxreT kalTebs Soris.

    xalxuri gadmocemiT, arabebis batonobis xanaSi cixis baRis (amJamindeli botanikuri baRi) mosarwyavad gamouyvaniaT Tu aRudgeniaT akvedukis tipis sarwyavi arxi. mis mkvebav nakaduls saTave kojris mTebSi hqonia; igi ori mimarTulebiT iyofoda: erTi sololakis qedis samxreTi kalTebidan botanikuri baRisken eSveboda, xolo meore sololakis qedis gadmoRma CrdiloeTiT moedineboda, Semdegdroindel sololakis ubnSi arsebuli baRebis mosarwyavad. (sololakis ubanSi SemorCenili arabulenovani warwerebis Sesaxeb, ix. RviniaSvili 2005). am arxis arabuli saxeli yofila "sulu-lah". aRniSnuli saxelwodeba Semdeg gavrcelebula mis mkvebav nakadulze da TviT sololakis mTaze, romlis ferdobebzec es arxi gadioda. ufro gvian ki es saxelwodeba mTis Ziras moqceul nakveTsac daarqves (Бадриашвили 1957, 10; kvirkvelia 1985, 76-77).

    SeniSvna: T. beriZis azriT, es arabuli saxelwodeba SesaZloa sarwyavi wyaros saxelidan yofiliyo warmomdgari Tu igi sarwyav arxs ar aRniSnavda (beriZe 2002, 836).

    sololakis quCa XIX saukuneSi erqva dRevandel leoniZis (yofili kirovis, ufro adre aRmaskomis) quCas. farTod gavrcelebuli SexedulebiT, am adgilas adre gadioda sololakis xevi; aRniSnuli saxeli xevis amovsebis Semdeg gadmovida aq mowyobil quCaze.

    uZvelesi cnoba sololakis Sesaxeb ekuTvnis vaxuSti batoniSvils, oRond igi mas icnobs salalakis formiT: "...kalasa da tfiliss hyofs salalakis wyali, romeli gamosdis wavkisisa da koJris mTebsa, samBriT da aRmosavliT udis kalas da dasavliT tfiliss". iqve: "kalas ars cixe, naSeni maRals kldesa zeda, da CamozRudvili salalakis-Bevi mtkuramde. salalakis-Bevis kars uwodeben ganjiskarad" (vaxuSti 1973, 334:2-4, 17-19).

    kala, Tbilisis cixis anu nariyalas uZvelesi saxelia, romelic sololakis qedis Txemze iyo agebuli, aki vaxuStic gvamcnobs: "kala mozRuda meore Saabaz... samBriT moavlo salalakis kldezed" (vaxuSti 1973, 337:9-10). ganjis kari nariyalis samxreT kedelSi iyo datanebuli stambolis koSkTan. es adgili daaxloebiT im adgilasaa, sadac amJamad botanikuri baRis Sesasvlelia abanoebis mxridan (Sdr. berZniSvili 1965, 37).

    vinaidan gansaxilveli toponimis adreuli forma "salalakia", da ara "sololaki", misi zemomoyvanili arabulad miCneuli etimologia - "sulu-lah" (sarwyavi arxi) - Tundac mxolod fonetikuri monacemebis [gv. 311] gaTvaliswinebis Sedegad unda gamoiricxos, ufro savaraudoa, rom "sulu-lah"-i warmoadgenda Turquli enis safuZvelze warmoqmnil gviandel xalxur etimologias: Turqulad "su" - wyalia, xolo "lule" - nakadulis gamosasvleli xvreli, mili (Sdr. Баскаков 1977, 591, 791). gamoTqmuli iyo agreTve mosazreba termin sololaki (salalaki) warmomavlobis Taobaze qarTuli sityvebidan sali da layi, TiTqosda "sveli brtyeli qvis" mniSvnelobiT (Ган 1909, 131). (armenolog nino afciauris azriT, es toponimi SesaZloa qarTuli sali alagidan momdinareobdes, salkldovani adgilis mniSvnelobiT. bevrad ufro angariSgasaweevia g. Ciqovanis mier arabuli enis centraluraziur, kaSkadariul dialeqtSi dafiqsirebuli termini _ sulu lak "xelovnurad dagubebuli wyali, auzi" (Ciqovani 2002, 197). avtori am terminSi gamoyofs kaSkadariul sayōl-s (mr. sayōlāt) "niaRvari, nakadi" da mas arabul suyūl-s ukavSirebs _ forma sayl-is msxvreul mravlobiTs: saylun (mr. sayūlun) "nakadi, nakaduli" da adgilis mawarmoebel Turqul sufiqss ak, ek, -la+k (Ciqovani 2002, 197-198). aRniSnuli terminis sasargeblod SesaZloa is garemoebac mowmobdes, rom Tbilisis citadelSi marTlac iyo mowyobili wylis samarago auzi, iseve rogorc oqroyanis midamoebsa da gareTubnis baRebSi (Sdr. berZniSvili 1965, 75), magram ra kavSiri unda hqonoda Turqulsufiqsian kaSkadariul dialeqtSi gamoyenebul sityvas Tbilisis Zvel toponimiasTan Zneli saTqmelia. ufro safiqrebelia, termin salalakSi, garda arabuli sityvisa _ سال (sāla), "dineba" gvxvdebodes arabulive sityva _ لقى (laqiya), "Sexvedra" (Sdr. Brockelmann 1962, 78*, 90*; Баранов 1962, 487, 930-931; ix., iqve, am sityvebTan dakavSirebuli sxva formebic).

    vaxuStis zemomoyvanil cnobaTa mixedviT, nariyalas da mis samxreTiT mdebare abanoTubnis anu sakuTriv Tbilisis gamyofia sololakis xevi, amdenad, Tbilisi mdebareobda sololakis xevis marjvena, xolo kala marcxena napirze. cixe-qalaqi ori nawilisagan Sedgeboda: Tbilisis erT nawils, qalaqiseburad dasaxlebul nawils, igive abanoTubans anu seidabads, sakuTriv Tbilisi ewodeboda, xolo meore, gamagrebul nawils, cixe-simagres ki _ kala (Вейденбаум 1888, 305-307). gamoTqmulia mosazreba, rom botanikuri baRis zemoT mdebare sololakis mTaze unda gaCeniliyo Tbilisis yvelaze adreuli mosaxleoba, am adgilis saukeTeso TavdacviTi maxasiaTeblebis gamo (Натадзе 1925, 71).

    SeniSvna: bolo dros saubaria, Zveli Tbilisis savaraudo dasaxlebis Sesaxeb ukve romaelTa xanaSi; kerZod, arqeolog g. RambaSiZis azriT, mtkvris viwrobebSi, bunebrivi Tbili wylebis raionis qveda stratigrafiul doneze, savaraudod, romauli periodis uZvelesi galavani da Termebi aRmoCnda, rac SesaZloa vaxtang gorgasalamdeli gamagrebuli dasaxlebis arsebobaze migvaniSnebdes (aleqsiZe 2007). marTlac Zneli warmosadgeni iqneboda romaul-parTuli dapirispirebisa da gansakuTrebiT I s. 70-iani wlebidan iberiaSi romaelTa gansakuTrebuli aqtiurobis periodSi maTi yuradRebis gareSe darCeniliyo [gv. 312] samxreT-aRmosavleTis mxridan armazcixe-mcxeTis Camketi iseTi samxedro-strategiuli mniSvnelobis punqti, rogorsac TbilisTan mdebare mtkvris viwrobebi warmoadgendnen (Sdr. qavTaraZe 2006, 93-95); am adgilebSi mtkvarsa da sololakis qeds Soris marTlac tipuri kldekari iqmneboda (Вейденбаум 1888, 303, 305). Sesabamisad amisa, vfiqrob, ufro gasagebi unda gaxdes Tbilisis Sesaxeb leonti mrovelis mier naTqvami: "...da aRaSena erisTavman sparsTaman tfilisis karTa Soris cixed mcxeTisad" (leonti mroveli 1955, 136:12-13), im koreqtiviT, rom "cixed mcxeTisad" anu mcxeTis damcvelad Tbilisis kldekarTa Soris cixis ageba yvelaze naklebad sparselTaTvis Tu iqneboda xelsayreli; maSin rodesac Tbilisi yvela mxridan mTebiT aris SemozRuduli, mtkvris aRma, mcxeTisaken, misi sazRvari TiTqmis mTlianad gaSlilia (Sdr. dondua 1923, 72).

    salalakis wylis xevis Tanamedrove saxelia wavkisis wyali, Zvelad mas leRvTa xevic rqmevia, xolo XIX saukuneSi igi ZiriTadad "dabaxankis" (Дабаханка - dabaxanis Tu dabaRxanis xevi) saxeliT iyo cnobili; vinaidan uZvelesi droidan TbilisSi dabaRebis (metyaveebis) rigebi ganlagebuli iyo am mdinaris qveda dinebaze, mis SesarTavTan mtkvarTan, mdinaris qvemo wels da mimdebare mcire teritorias da maTgan TviT mdinaresac dabaxana uwodes (dondua 1923, 87; mesxia 1958, 3-4; beriZe 1960, 33; kvirkvelia 1985, 29). Tumca zogierTi mkvlevari am saxelwodebebSi ara mxolod qronologiur, aramed sivrcobriv sxvaobasac xedavs; maTi azriT, es mdinare saTaveSi wavkisiswylad iwodeba, radganac sof. wavkisze gaivlis, Semdeg farTo xevSi Sedis da leRvTaxevs uwodeben, xevSi leRvTa xis sixSiris gamo, xolo SesarTavTan - dabaRxanas, dabaRebis saqmianobis gamo (zardaliSvili 1978, 20-21, 42).

    Tu dabaRxanis xevisa (igive salalakis wyali) da mtkvris xerTvisTan dabaRebi tyaveulobas albobdnen, bunebrivia, iqve unda yofiliyo pirutyvis saklavic. rogorc cnobilia, TaTris moednis (igive SaiTan-bazari, dRes - vaxtang gorgaslis moedani) uSualo siaxloves, mtkvris napirze iyo sasaklaoc (kvirkvelia 1985, 45). "dabaxanisa" da metyaveobis warmateba didad iqneboda damokidebuli metexidan gadmomaval xidze - erTaderTze romliTac SeiZleboda mtkvarze saqonlis gadayvana kaxeTidan TrialeTis mimarTulebiT mcxeTaSi arsebuli, e. w. pompeusis xidis Semdeg (meliqseT-begi 1959, 32). dabaRxanas da sasaklaos qalaqis farglebidan gandevna, rogorc Cans droebiTi, mxolod p. cicianovis mTavarmmarTvelobis dros moxda misi brZanebis safuZvelze (ix. janaSvili 1899, 150). "dabaxana" gadautaniaT seidabadis baRebis ubanSi, sumbatovebis baRis adgilas, mtkvris piras (berZniSvili 1965, 42).

    vinaidan salalakis wylis xevs dabaRebis aq moRvaweobis gamo Seerqva dabaRxanis xevi, TiTqos ar unda yofiliyo gamoricxuli, rom imave xevs salalakis saxelwodebac iqve arsebuli sasaklaos aRmniSvneli arabul-sparsuli terminis (sāllai) mixedviT darqmeoda, romelic aqedan mdinaris aRma mdebare xevsa da mis ferdobebzec gavrceldeboda. Tumca aq [gv. 313] problemuria geminirebuli Tanxmovnis (ll) a-Ti superaciis daSvebis SesaZlebloba. aRsaniSnavia, rom wavkisis wylis saTavesTan, tabaxmelidan wavkisisaken gamaval gzasTan dasturdeba saxelwodeba "boinisxevi" (igive "sasaklaosxevi" anu "dampalo"); uwin iq pirutyvis saklavi adgili yofila (zardaliSvili 1978, 16).

    SeniSvna: sparsulad, دباغ (dābbagh) - metyave, "dabaRi", tyavis gamomqmneli, mTrimlavi (Sdr. Миллер 1960, 210). arabulad ﺴَﻟَﺦَ (sāllaa) - tyavis gacla, gaZrobas niSnavs, xolo ﺴَﻠَﺨَﺎﻨَﺔ  - (sāllaānatun) sasaklaos (Sdr. Баранов 1962, 460). sparsulad sasaklao, "sasalaxo" arabuli warmomavlobis sityviT - ﺴﻼخى (sāllai), an amave sityvidan nawarmoebi ﺴﻼخانه (sāla-ane)-Ti aRiniSneba (Sdr. Миллер 1960, 289); igive sityva Sesulia TurqulSic ﺴﻼخ - (salla) - gamtyavebeli, tyavismxdeli, xolo ﺴﺎﻟﺨﺎﻨﺔ, خانة            سلخ - sele - sasaklao, "sasalaxo" (Sdr. Будагов 1869, 631-632).

    vinaidan sololakis, igive wavkisis wyali abanoebis ubnis daRma, metexis mopirdapire napirze uerTdeba mtkvars, XIX saukuneSi gareTubnis dasavleT nawilSi arsebuli "sololakis quCa" ver iqneboda sololakis xevis adgilas mowyobili; aq avanaanT xevi mdebareobda.

    avanaanT xevi, anu e. w. arxi, wavkis-sololakis mTidan iRebda saTaves. igi dRevandel amaRlebisa (yof. daviTaSvilis) da leoniZis (yof. kirovis) quCebs, Tavisuflebis moedans, puSkinisa da baraTaSvilis quCebs kveTda da baraTaSvilis saxelobis xidis xelmarjvniv uerTdeboda mtkvars. qalaqis farglebs gareT mdebare es adgili imdenad miyruebuli da migdebuli yofila, rom saandazodac ki gadaqceula: "visac RmerTi miscemso, avanaanT xevSic miscemso" (leoniZe 2000, 475).

    amJamad avanaanT xevi am quCebisa da Tavisuflebis moednis qveSaa moqceuli (ix., mag., zardaliSvili 1978, 10, 13; mesxia 1958, 4). igi gadaixura XIX saukunis Sua xanebSi; moewyo Rvarsadeni da sagangebo jebirebi. quCas Tavdapirvelad "nagornaia" erqva, xolo 1843 wels, rodesac es saxeli axlandel lermontovis quCas uwodes, yofil avanaanT xevs ukve salalakis quCis (Салалакская улица) saxeli miakuTvnes (beriZe 1960, 26, 133, 134). savaraudoa, rom am quCis aRsaniSnavad forma "sololakis" myari gamoyeneba "salalakis" nacvlad XIX saukunis meore naxevarSi xdeba (XIX s. 60-iani wlebis damlevs n. berzenovi am saxelwodebas moixseniebs, rogorc salolakis, aseve sololakis formiT (Sdr., Бакрадзе/Берзенов 1870, 123 da 126). Tumca h.-i. klaproTi ukve imave saukunis dasawyisSi xmarobs solalan-is (ix., qvemoT), xolo 1800 wels kapitan Cuikos mier Sedgenil Tbilisis gegmaze gvxvdeba forma solaki (ix., qvemoT). am cvlilebas SesaZloa ramdenadme xeli Seewyo rusuli enisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli "о" xmovnis "а"-d gamoTqmamac. sololaki qalaqis burJuaziis umTavres ubnad, namdvil citadelad iyo gadaqceuli (ix. beriZe 1960, 34); igi iTvleboda uxvi mcenareulobisa da sigrilis [gv. 314] kerad (Полиевктов/Натадзе 1929, 102). rogorc Cans, qalaqis axlad warmoqmnili, ZiriTadad araqarTuli mosaxleobisgan Seqmnili nuvoriSebis kastisaTvis, iseve rogorc rusuli administraciisaTvis miuRebeli iyo qarTuli saxelwodeba "avanaanT xevi" (sololaki ZiriTadad somxur ubnad iyo miCneuli XX s. dasawyisisTvis (ix., mag., Villari 1906, 333). gasaTvaliswinebelia, T. beriZis SeniSvna, rom toponimi "sololaki" gaCnda XIX saukunis I naxevarSi, xolo XIX saukunis meore naxevridan salalakis - sololakis xevis saxeli daimkvidra gareTubanSi mdebare "avanaanT xevma" da, Sesabamisad, mis zemo welze mimdebare teritoriamac (beriZe 1977, 58; beriZe 1985, 456).

    mosazreba, rom TiTqos avanaanT xevis Zveli saxelwodeba "salalakis wyali" unda yofiliyo (kvirkvelia 1985, 34; beriZe 2002, 836), arsebuli monacemebiT ar dasturdeba.[1] es Sexeduleba unda momdinareobdes vaxuStis gegmis (H 2079) eqsplikaciebidan, sadac salalakis wyali  ewodeba wylis nakads, romelic gegmaze ("saxe tbilisisa") jer sololakis qedis CrdiloeT ferdobs gasdevs aRmosavleTis mimarTulebiT anu vaxuStiseuli aRweris "salalakis wylis" (ufro gviandel cnobaTa "wavkisis wylis") paralelurad, Semdeg dasavleTisaken miemarTeba[2], bolos ki Crdilo -aRmosavleTisaken iRebs pirs da iqve mdebare baRebSi iqsaqseba. aq baRebi mefe-dedoflis garda hqoniaT batoniSvilebs, Tbilels, qalaqis mamasaxliss da sxv. aRniSnuli baRebi vaxuStis gegmaze beJanas qarvaslas (gegmis ganmartebebSi # 37-iT aRniSnuli), anu dRevandeli Tavisuflebis moednisa da dadianis quCis gadakveTis adgilis samxreT-dasavleTiT mdebareobdnen da cxadia, es wyali avanaanT xevis zemo nawilSi, kerZod, dRevandeli leoniZis quCis qveS gamaval xevSi naklebad Tu moxvdeboda. gasaTvaliswinebelia isic, rom es xevi mSral, saniaRvre xevad yofila miCneuli (Кобяков 1880, 260; Sdr. kvirkvelia 1985, 34) da bunebrivia, igi ver atarebda vaxuStis gegmis eqsplikaciebSi mocemul salalakis wylis saxels.

    termin "salalakis wylis" or gansxvavebul adgilas gamoyenebiT gamowveul gaurkvevlobas garkveul Suqs hfens ruseTis xelisuflebis davalebiT Sesrulebuli da moskovSi daculi (ЦГВИА, Фонд ВУА, 22656) Tbilisis 1782 wlis ruka (ix. beriZe 1960, 21, sur. 1; 130, Sen. 2), romlis saSualebiTac irkveva, rom wylis orive es nakadi, "salalakis wylad" saxeldebuli, sinamdvileSi erTidaimave mdinaris wylisagan Sedgeboda, romlis ZiriTadi dineba abanoTubanSi Caedineba, xolo CrdiloeTis ganStoeba[3], or, aRmosavleT da CrdiloeT, nawilad dayofili, erTi mxriv, jer aRmosavleTiT, xolo Semdeg Sah taxtis siaxloves vidre CrdiloeTisaken gauxvevda, Tavis mxriv orad iyofoda, nawili galavnis SigniT Sedioda da citadelisaken iRebda gezs[4], xolo ufro wyalsavse dineba qalaqis dasavleT galavans CrdiloeTisken miuyveboda da kojris karTan avanaanT xevs uerTdeboda, xolo wylis meore,  CrdiloeTi nawili samxreT-dasavleTidan Crdilo-aRmosavleTis mimarTulebiT hkveTda sololakis qeds, gamodioda dRevandeli amaRlebis quCasTan (Бадриашвили 1957, 17) da daaxloebiT dRevandeli qiqoZisa da [gv. 315] lermontovis quCebis gadakveTasTan isic orad iyofoda, romelTaganac marjvena toti, iseve rogorc vaxuStis gegmaze baRebSi iqsaqseboda[5], xolo marcxena avanaanT xevis zeda nawils uerTdeboda[6]. rogorc Cans, swored am garemoebiT, erTidaimave salalakis/wavkisis wylis or ganStoebad dayofiT, unda aixsnas vaxuStis ZiriTadi teqstisa da mis Tanmxleb gegmis eqsplikaciebSi erTi da imave, abanoTubanSi Camavali, mdinarisaTvis ori sxvadasxva saxelis, wavkisis wyali da salalakis wyali gamoyeneba da amasTanave erTi da imave mdinaris or, aRmosavleTisa da CrdiloeTis, ganStoebebad miCneuli nakadebisaTvis, Sesabamisad, vaxuStis gegmis eqsplikaciebSi ori gansxvavebuli saxelis, "wavkisis wylisa" da "salalakis wylis", mikuTvneba. aRsaniSnavia, rom ara mxolod abanoTubanSi Camavali mdinare iyo am ori saxeliT saxeldebuli, aramed gareTubanSi gamoyvanili misi nakadic, kerZod, avanaanT xevisken dinebis mqone salalakis wyalsac erqva imavdroulad "wavkisis wyali"; Cuikos mier 1800 wels Sedgenil rukaze gareTubanSi ramdenime adgilas naCvenebia baRebis mosarwyav arxTa sistema, romelic Semdegi saxelwodebebiT moixsenieba: "ров водяной для пущания по садам воды", "водяной ров из речки Цавкисы для пущания воды в сады" (ix. beriZe 1960, 20, 23, sur. 2; Sdr. berZniSvili 1965, 77, 87:1, 3; danarTi: Tbilisis 1800 wlis gegma). 

    mxolod mas Semdeg rac dRevandel leoniZis quCas "nagornaias" nacvlad "salalakis quCis" saxeli miekuTvna, adre aq arsebuli xevis saxeli - avanaanT xevi - SeunarCunda mxolod Crdilo-aRmosavleTiTa da aRmosavleTiT mtkvrisaken (muxranis, igive baraTaSvilis xidTan) Camaval mis qveda nawils, xolo ukve gadaxurul da amaRlebis quCis Sua nawilidan did milSi miwis qveS gamaval saniaRvre xevis zeda nawils ewoda - "sololakis xevi" (Sdr. Бакрадзе/Берзенов 1870, 123; beriZe 1947, 132). aRsaniSnavia, rom ufro adreuli - 1821, 1828 da 1831 wlebis - Tbilisis gegmebis mixedviT gareTubanSi cvlilebebi ar Cans. e. w. "salalakis baRebi" isev xeluxlebeli rCeba, xolo toponimi "salalaki" pirvelad gareTubnis teritoriaze, rogorc Cans, 1828 wlis gegma-proeqtzea[7] dafiqsirebuli, isic ubnis zeda nawilSi, im adgilebSi, romlebic ufro adreul gegmebze mxolod baRebiT iyo dafaruli. aq ukve Cndeba sofeli salalaki. imdroindel dagegmvaSi salalaki sruliad gaTiSulia momavali rusTvelis prospeqtis raionisagan giorgi batoniSviliseuli baRiT (beriZe 1960, 25, 28, 29; kvirkvelia 1985, 77).

      amrigad, salalakis xevis abanoTubanSi lokalizaciisaTvis, upirveles yovlisa, gasaTvaliswinebelia vaxuStis zemomoyvanili sityvebi, rom "...kalasa da tfiliss hyofs salalakis wyali, romeli... samBriT da aRmosavliT udis kalas da dasavliT tfiliss", agreTve "salalakis-Bevis kars uwodeben ganjiskarad". sololakis xevis, samxreTul, abanoebis ubanSi, lokalizacias mowmobs agreTve 1776 w. wyalobis sigeli, romlis mixedviT, Taboris cixis ZirTan mdebare miwis nakveTi irwyveboda sololakis wylis saSualebiT (saqarTvelos centraluri saxelmwifo istoriuli arqivis fondi 1449, # 161; ix. beriZe 1977, 96)[8]. amasve [gv. 316] mowmobs 1800 wels rusi kapitnis Cuikos mier Sedgenil gegmaze datanili warwera: "Речка Цавкис она же Солаки" (ЦГВИА, Фонд ВУА, 22660, ix. berZniSvili 1965, 83-87; danarTi: Tbilisis 1800 wlis gegma; Sdr. beriZe 1960, 23, sur. 2; 130, Sen. 2). gasaTvaliswinebelia, agreTve, 1807-1808 ww. TbilisSi myofi, h.-i. klaproTis informacia, romlis Tanaxmadac, Tbilisis samxreT nawilSi mdebare ganjiskaridan ganjisaken mimavali gza solalanis velze gadioda (ix. Полиевктов/Натадзе 1929, 69)[9].

     Tu termini salalaki/sololaki mTisa da qedis garda Tavdapirvelad ixmareboda e. w. wavkisis wylis, misi xeobisa da mdinaris mtkvarTan SeerTebis samxreTiT mdebare velis aRsaniSnavad, ufro gvian - amave mdinaris CrdiloeTi ganStoebis wylis gareTubnis dasavleT nawilSi mdebare baRebis sarwyavad gamoyenebis gamo - am ubnis sarwyavi sistemis wylisa da iqve XIX saukunis pirvel naxevarSi arsebuli soflisaTvis; xolo mas Semdeg, rac avanaanT xevis gadaxurvis Sedegad mowyobil quCas - "nagornaias" - salalakis saxeli miekuTvna, es termini gavrcelda qalaqis yofili galavnis (daaxl. S. dadianis quCis marcxena mxaris), dasavleTiTa da mTawmindis samxreTiT mdebare vrcel ubanze.

 

 



SeniSvnebi:

 

[1] saxelwodeba avanaanT xevis siZveles Tundac is unda mowmobdes, rom jer kidev qarTlis mefe luarsab I-is xanaSi, mcxeTis 1546 wlis sigelSi ixseniebian Tbilisis mcxovrebi avanaSvilebi (leoniZe 2000, 475). avanaanT xevi yofila kaxeTSic, Zvel gavazSi (leoniZe 2000, 475), xolo sof. avana _ nigalis xeobaSi, arTvinis Crdilo-dasavleTiT (Исарлов 1899, 283).

[2] es wyali daaxl. S. dadianis q. dasavleTiT mdebare l. asaTianis q. seqtoridan mkveTrad uxvevda dasavleTisaken da dRev. g. qiqoZis (yofili maxaraZis) quCis gayolebiT CrdiloeTisaken miedineboda (ix. Кобяков 1880, 290-291; Sdr. berZniSvili 1965, 78, 79; danarTi: vaxuStis gegma); aq, kojris gzis gadakveTamde, salalakis wyali (vaxuStis gegmis ganmartebebSi # 43-iT aRniSnuli), daaxl. dRev. lermontovisa da qiqoZis quCebis gzajvaredinTan da Tbilelis baRis (# 42) maxloblad Crdilo-aRmosavleTisaken iRebda gezs _ mefis did, dedoflisa da mamasaxlisis baRebisaken (## 40, 39, 48).

[3] n. badriaSvilis gancxadebiT, igi xelovnurad mowyobil wyalsadens warmoadgenda da XIX s. ocdaaTian wlebamde jer baRebis sarwyavad gamoiyeneboda, xolo Semdeg amJamindeli Tavisuflebis moednisa da Zveli qalaqis auzebs wyliT amaragebda (ix. Бадриашвили 1957, 16, 17),

[4] es unda yofiliyo J. turneforiseul Tbilisis 1701 wlis naxatze, sololakis qedis Txemze gamavali akveduki (kvirkvelia 1985, 70). igive arxi garda vaxuStis gegmisa datanilia 1785 da 1800 ww. Tbilisis rukebzec (ix. berZiSvili 1965, 76).

[5] niSandoblivia, rom 1823 w. martSi rusi administraciisadmi miweril gancxadebaSi (ix. beriZe 1977, 57) Tekla batoniSvili misi baRis mosarwyavad gamoyenebul nakaduls moixseniebs ara hidronimiT sololakis wyali, aramed rogorc "ganwesebuls sololakidam wyals". [gv. 317]

[6] igive viTarebaa asaxuli 1785 wels piSCeviCis mier Sesrulebul rukazec (ix. berZniSvili 1965, 80-82; danarTi: Tbilisis 1785 wlis gegma piSCeviCisa).

[7] "Новый план г. Тифлиса. 1828", Sesrulebuli tenginis qveiTi polkis praporSCikis semionovis mier. es gegma SemdgomSi safuZvlad dasdebia sololakis ubnis mSeneblobas (ix. beriZe 1960, 28, 29).

[8] Taboris mTis adgilmdebareobisaTvis, ix., mag., Исарлов 1899, 328; beriZe 1977, 88; kvirkvelia 1985, 44.

[9] aRsaniSnavia, rom h.-i. klaproTi solalanis saxeliT icnobs sololakis qedsac, Tumca vaxuStiseul salalakis wyals ukve "wavkisis wyals" uwodebs (ix. Полиевктов/Натадзе 1929, 67-68), iseve, rogorc TviT vaxuStiseuli 1735 w. gegma (ix. Кобяков 1880, 290-291).

 

 

literatura

 

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beriZe 1947 = v. beriZe. XVIII saukunis Tbilisi vaxuStis gegmis mixedviT, - analebi, ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis istoriis institutis Sromebi, I, 1947. Tb., 1947.

 

beriZe 1960 = v. beriZe. Tbilisis xuroTmoZRvreba 1801-1917 wlebi. Tbilisi, 1960.

 

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beriZe 1985 = T. beriZe. sololaki, - qarTuli sabWoTa enciklopedia, t. 9, 1985.

 

beriZe 2002 = T. beriZe. sololaki, - Tbilisis enciklopedia. Tbilisi, 2002.

 

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vaxuSti 1973 = vaxuSti batoniSvili. aRwera samefosa saqarTvelosa. qarTlis cxovreba, t. IV. teqsti dadgenili yvela ZiriTadi xelnaweris mixedviT s. yauxCiSvilis mier. Tbilisi, 1973.

 

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leoniZe 2000 = g. leoniZe. avanaanT xevi, wgn.: giorgi leoniZe, ole. Semdgeneli da redaqtori: i. orjonikiZe. Tbilisi, 2000.

 

meliqseT-begi 1959 = l. meliqseT-begi. Zalisi-Tbilisi-faitarakani, wgn.: Tbilisi - 1500. Tbilisi, 1959.

 

mesxia 1958 = S. mesxia. uZvelesi Tbilisi, - wgn.: S. mesxia, d. gvritiSvili, m. dumbaZe, a. surgulaZe. Tbilisis istoria. Tbilisi, 1958.

 

qavTaraZe 2006 = g. qavTaraZe. saqarTvelos saxelmwifoebrivi  ganviTarebis sakiTxebi (adreuli xanidan). iberiul-kavkasiuri  saerTaSoriso  samecniero  centri. kavkasiologiuri seria, II. Tbilisi, 2006.

 

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Ciqovani 2002 = g. Ciqovani. Sua aziis arabuli dialeqtebi. kaSkadariuli dialeqti (fonologia, gramatika, leqsika). Tbilisi, 2002.

 

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Бадриашвили 1957 = Н. Бадриашвили. Тбилиси. Тбилиси, 1957.

 

Бакрадзе/Берзенов 1870 = Д. Бакрадзе, И. Берзенов. Тифлис в историческом и этнографическом отношениях. Санктпетербург, 1870.

 

Баранов 1962 = Арабско-русский словарь. Составил Х. К. Баранов. Москва, 1962.

 

Баскаков 1977 = А. Н. Баскаков, Н. П. Голубева, А. А. Кямилева, К. М. Любимов, Ф. А. Салимзянова, Р. Р. Юсипова. Турецко-русский словарь. Москва, 1977.

 

Будагов 1869 = Сравнительный словарь турецко-татарских наречий, со включением употребительнейших слов арабских и персидских и с переводом на русский язык. Составил Л. Будагов. Том I. Санктпетербург, 1869.

 

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Кобяков 1880 = Краткий географический и топографический очерк Тифлиса, В кн.: Сборник cведений о Кавказе, том VI. Составлен и редактирован Д. А Кобяковым. Тифлис, 1880.

 

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Натадзе 1925 = Г. Натадзе. Этюды по истории Тифлиса на основании рельефа его территории. В кн.:  Тифлис и его окрестности (Путеводитель). Ред.: И. А. Асланишвили. Тифлис, 1925.

 

Полиевктов/Натадзе 1929 = М. Полиевктов, Г. Натадзе. Старый Тифлис в известиях современников. Тифлис, 1929.

 

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GIORGI KAVTARADZE

 

FOR THE LOCATION OF SOLOLAKI

 

    

     Sololaki Street was the name of the present Leonidze street (Kirov street during the Soviet times). According to the popular thought the place was the ravine of the Sololaki river and after filling up the place the name was transferred to the street that was built in this place.

            The word "Sololaki" is considered to be originated from the Arabic word "Sululahad" meaning irrigating channel. However, more convincing seems the origination of the word "Sululahad" from the Turkish word "Su-Lula", su meaning water and lula - a hole where the stream flows through. We should not also exclude that the word salalaki, apart from the Arabic سال, sāla, "to flow", may have another element as a word لقى laqiya "to meet" which denote the water reservoir arranged in the citadel at the ridge of the mountain.

     According to Vakhushti Bagrationi, a 18th century scholar and a geographer, Narikala castle is built on the crest of the Sololaki hill and that the river Sololaki divides Kala (Narikala) and Abanotubani, located to the south direction from Kala, i.e. Tbilisi city, proper.

            The modern name of the river Sololaki is Tsavkisis Tskali, it had also the name Leghvis Khevi; and in the 19th century it was known as Dabaghkhanis Khevi.

            As Sololaki river valley joins the Kura at the opposite bank of Metekhi, lower of the Abanotubani i.e. Seidabadi, the 19th century "Sololaki street" could not be arranged at the place of the Sololaki  river; the place of this street was known as Avanaant Khevi which was mainly a dry channel for rain flood, and naturally it could not bear the name Salalakis Tskali.

            In addition to Vakhushti's information about the location of Salalaki ravine there is an Award Certificate of 1776 which says that the plot of land at the foot of Tabori castle was irrigated by Sololaki waters. It should be noted also that in the beginning of 19th century H.-J. Klaproth, visiting Tbilisi, gives us the information according to which the road leading from Ganjiskari to Ganja, crossing the southern part of Tbilisi, went through the Solalani field.

            If the place-name Salalaki/Sololaki was originally denoting (except the crest of the hill) the river (the Tsavkisis Tskali), its ravine and the field located to the southern part of its estuary, later, because of the application of this name as the irrigating source of the orchards of the western part, it came to use in the beginning of the 19th century for the newly emerged settlement. When the ravine of Avanaant Khevi was roofed to arrange a new street by the name of "Nagornaya" and this later name was changed into the Sololaki street, the place name Sololaki spread far to the west direction of the former city walls and to the vast locality south to Mtatsminda.

           

 

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